ABAP code for implementation of ServiceNow alert

In the previous blog on the ServiceNow outbound integration connection we deomonstrated the of the connection. This blog will explain the technical ABAP implementation.

The implementation below is based on the Restful implementation using the ServiceNow midserver concept. At the end the basic steps are explained if you want to use the ServiceNow webservice implementation.

Questions that will be answered in this blog are:

  • How do I connect from the ABAP stack towards the midserver?
  • Which BADI do I need to activate for the outbound integration?
  • How do I call the midserver connection from the BADI?
  • How do I deal with the differences in severity definition between ServiceNow and SAP Focused Run?
  • If I want to set up the connection via web services, what do I need to do?
  • How can I include application logging in such a way that I can monitor the calls and issues in SLG1?

Set up the RFC destination

In SM59 setup the RFC connection towards the MID server as type H RFC connection:

Activation of the enhancement spot and BADI

The details of the enhancement spot and BADI implementation are in the SAP document published on the SAP Focused Run Expert Portal.

Use transaction SE18 or SE80 to activate enhancement spot ACC_REACTION_EXTERNAL and then activate BADI BADI_ACC_REACTION_EXT.

The result looks as follows:

Double click on the implementation:

Double click on the REACT_TO_ALERT interface to go to the code. The code we implemented looks as below:

  METHOD if_acc_reaction_ext~react_to_alert.

    IF is_alert-ref->get_type( ) <> 'ALERT'.
      RETURN.
    ENDIF.

    " Init. the application log.
    me->zgo_logger = NEW zcl_snow_bi_logger( ).

    " Add info message to notify reaction was triggered
    me->zgo_logger->bal_log_add_message(
      EXPORTING
        ziv_msgty = zif_snow_constants=>zgc_message_types-info
        ziv_msgno = '002'
    ).

    " Send message to service now
    NEW zcl_snow_bi_common( )->zif_snow_bi_common~send_message_to_snow(
      EXPORTING
        zii_logger              = me->zgo_logger
        zii_snow_message        = NEW zcl_snow_event_message( zii_alert = is_alert-ref  )
        ziv_resolution_state    = zif_snow_constants=>zgc_resolution_state-new
    ).

    " Save the application log
    me->zgo_logger->bal_log_save( ).

  ENDMETHOD.

What do we do in the code:

  1. We only react on type ALERT
  2. We make an entry in the application log (so we can check later on in SLG1)
  3. We call the actual interface which we have implemented in class ZCL_SNOW_BI_COMMON class

The implementation code

The sending code in method ZIF_SNOW_BI_COMMON~SEND_MESSAGE_TO_SNOW that was just called looks as follows:

  METHOD zif_snow_bi_common~send_message_to_snow.

    " Retrieve JSON body for the request
    DATA(zlv_snow_event_json) = zii_snow_message->get_json( ziv_resolution_state ).

    me->add_json_to_bal_log( EXPORTING zii_logger   = zii_logger
                                       ziv_json     = zlv_snow_event_json ).


    TRY.
        " Execute HTTP Post, send data to the MiD API
        DATA(zlv_http_status_code) = NEW zcl_snow_mid_api( )->post( ziv_event_messages = zlv_snow_event_json ).

        " Add HTTP response code to the log..
        IF zlv_http_status_code-code >= 200 AND zlv_http_status_code-code < 300.
          DATA(zlv_msgty) = zif_snow_constants=>zgc_message_types-success.
        ELSE.
          zlv_msgty = zif_snow_constants=>zgc_message_types-error.
        ENDIF.

        zii_logger->bal_log_add_message(
           EXPORTING
             ziv_msgty = zlv_msgty
             ziv_msgno = '001'
             ziv_msgv1 = |{ zlv_http_status_code-code } { zlv_http_status_code-reason }|
         ).

      CATCH zcx_snow_mid_api INTO DATA(zlo_exception).
        "Add exception to the application log
        zii_logger->bal_log_add_message(
          EXPORTING
            ziv_msgid = zlo_exception->if_t100_message~t100key-msgid
            ziv_msgno = zlo_exception->if_t100_message~t100key-msgno
            ziv_msgv1 = CONV #( zlo_exception->if_t100_message~t100key-attr1 )
            ziv_msgv2 = CONV #( zlo_exception->if_t100_message~t100key-attr2 )
            ziv_msgv3 = CONV #( zlo_exception->if_t100_message~t100key-attr3 )
            ziv_msgv4 = CONV #( zlo_exception->if_t100_message~t100key-attr4 )
        ).
    ENDTRY.

  ENDMETHOD.

What happens here:

  1. Data object is build in the data definition (details follow below)
  2. This is logged
  3. The actual call is performed by calling class ZCL_SNOW_MID_API (details follow below)
  4. The result is checked (200 is http code for Ok)
  5. Error result is logged in case of issues

The code for the message content

For the message content, we first define the message event type:

INTERFACE zif_snow_message
  PUBLIC .

  TYPES:
    BEGIN OF zgts_event,
      "! Source
      source           TYPE string,
      "! Name of the object
      node             TYPE string,
      "! Type of object, host, instance
      type             TYPE string,
      "! Severity
      severity         TYPE string,
      "! Date/Time(YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS)
      time_of_event    TYPE string,
      "! Alert description/name
      description      TYPE string,
      "! SAP System ID
      event_class      TYPE string,
      "! Unique ID
      message_key      TYPE string,
      "! Alert state
      resolution_state TYPE string,
      "! Resource
      resource         TYPE string,
    END OF zgts_event.

  METHODS get_json  IMPORTING ziv_resoultion_state TYPE string
                    RETURNING VALUE(zrv_json)      TYPE /ui2/cl_json=>json.

ENDINTERFACE.

This event is used in the actual message build code:

  METHOD zif_snow_message~get_json.

    DATA zlv_events TYPE /ui2/cl_json=>json.

    " Get current time stamp
    GET TIME STAMP FIELD DATA(zlv_time_stamp_now).

    DATA(zlv_event_json) = /ui2/cl_json=>serialize(
      EXPORTING
        data        =  VALUE zif_snow_message~zgts_event(
          source              = |{ syst-sysid } - FRUN |
          node                = zgi_alert->get_managed_object_name( )
          type                = zgi_alert->get_managed_object_type( )
          severity            = me->convert_severity( zgi_alert->get_severity( ) )
          time_of_event       = me->convert_alert_timestamp( ziv_timestamp = zlv_time_stamp_now )
          description         = COND #( LET custom_description = me->remove_html_tags( zgi_alert->get_custom_description( ) ) IN
                                        WHEN strlen( custom_description ) > 0 THEN custom_description
                                        ELSE me->remove_html_tags( zgi_alert->get_sap_description(  ) ) )
          event_class         = substring( val = zgi_alert->get_managed_object_name( ) off = 0 len = 3 )
          message_key         = zgi_alert->get_type_id( )
          resolution_state    = ziv_resoultion_state
          resource            = zgi_alert->get_name( )
        )
        pretty_name = /ui2/cl_json=>pretty_mode-low_case
    ).

    IF zlv_events IS INITIAL.
      zlv_events = zlv_event_json.
    ELSE.
      zlv_events = zlv_events && ',' && zlv_event_json.
    ENDIF.

    IF zlv_events IS NOT INITIAL.
      zrv_json =  '{ "records": [' && zlv_events && '] }'.
    ENDIF.

  ENDMETHOD.

Simple method codes:

  METHOD if_acc_mea~get_managed_object_name.
    rv_managed_object_name = ms_mea-context_name.
  ENDMETHOD.
  METHOD if_acc_mea~get_managed_object_type.
    rv_managed_object_type = ms_mea-context_type.
  ENDMETHOD.
  METHOD if_acc_mea~get_severity.
    rv_severity = ms_mea-severity.
  ENDMETHOD.
  METHOD convert_alert_timestamp.

    " Convert the timestamp
    CONVERT TIME STAMP ziv_timestamp TIME ZONE 'UTC'
      INTO DATE DATA(zlv_date) TIME DATA(zlv_time)
      DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME DATA(zlv_dls_time).


    zrv_date_time = |{ zlv_date+0(4) }-{ zlv_date+4(2) }-{ zlv_date+6(2) } { zlv_time+0(2) }:{ zlv_time+2(2) }:{ zlv_time+4(2) }|.

  ENDMETHOD.
  METHOD if_acc_mea~get_name.
    rv_name = ms_mea-name.
  ENDMETHOD.
  METHOD if_acc_mea~get_type_id.
    rv_type_id = ms_mea-type_id.
  ENDMETHOD.

Helper method to remove HTML tags:

  METHOD remove_html_tags.

    IF ziv_description IS INITIAL.
      RETURN.
    ENDIF.

    DATA(zlv_description) = ziv_description.

    DATA(zlv_newline) = cl_abap_char_utilities=>newline.

    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '<h2>' IN zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '</h2>' IN zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '<strong>' IN zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '</strong>' IN zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '<p>' IN zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '</p>' IN zlv_description WITH zlv_newline IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '<b>' IN zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '</b>' IN zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '<u>' IN zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '</u>' IN zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '<i>' IN zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '</i>' IN zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '<ul>' IN zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '</ul>' IN zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '<li>' IN zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '</li>' IN zlv_description WITH zlv_newline IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF '<a href="' IN zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF REGEX '">[A-Za-z0-9_\~\-+=&[:space:]]*</a>' IN  zlv_description WITH '' IGNORING CASE.

    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF ' ' IN zlv_description WITH '_'  IGNORING CASE.
    REPLACE ALL OCCURRENCES OF ':' IN zlv_description WITH ':'     IGNORING CASE.

    zrv_desription = zlv_description.


  ENDMETHOD.

Method to convert severity:

  METHOD convert_severity.

    CASE ziv_sm_severity.
      WHEN 1 OR 2 OR 3 OR 4.
        zrv_sn_severity = 5. " Info
      WHEN 5.
        zrv_sn_severity = 4. " Warning
      WHEN 6.
        zrv_sn_severity = 3. " Minor
      WHEN 7.
        zrv_sn_severity = 2. " Major
      WHEN 8 OR 9.
        zrv_sn_severity = 1. " Critical
      WHEN OTHERS.
        zrv_sn_severity = 0. " Clear
    ENDCASE.

  ENDMETHOD.

This method convert the SAP Focused Run severity code from 1 to 9 towards the codes in ServiceNow. Adjusts the codes per your requirement.

The sending code

The sending code is as follows (for more details on ABAP REST calls, read this blog):

  METHOD post.

    " Initialize the HTTP client
    me->init_http_client( ).

    " Set header
    me->zgo_http_client->request->set_method( method = me->zgo_http_client->request->co_request_method_post ).

    me->zgo_http_client->request->set_content_type( content_type = zgc_content_type ).

    " Set body
    me->zgo_http_client->request->set_cdata( EXPORTING data = ziv_event_messages ).

    " Send the data (POST)
    me->send( ).

    " Receive the response; needed to get the http status code
    me->receive( ).

    " Get the status code
    me->zgo_http_client->response->get_status(
      IMPORTING
        code   = zrs_status-code      " HTTP status code
        reason = zrs_status-reason    " HTTP status description
    ).

  ENDMETHOD.

Subimplementations of the methods:

  METHOD init_http_client.

    cl_http_client=>create_by_destination(
      EXPORTING
        destination              = zgc_destination      " Logical destination (specified in function call)
      IMPORTING
        client                   = me->zgo_http_client  " HTTP Client Abstraction
      EXCEPTIONS
        argument_not_found       = 1
        destination_not_found    = 2
        destination_no_authority = 3
        plugin_not_active        = 4
        internal_error           = 5
        OTHERS                   = 6
    ).

    IF sy-subrc NE 0.
      me->raise_exception_for_sys_msg( ).
    ENDIF.

  ENDMETHOD.
  METHOD send.

    me->zgo_http_client->send(
      EXCEPTIONS
        http_communication_failure = 1
        http_invalid_state         = 2
        http_processing_failed     = 3
        http_invalid_timeout       = 4
        OTHERS                     = 5
    ).

    IF sy-subrc NE 0.
      me->raise_exception_for_sys_msg( ).
    ENDIF.

  ENDMETHOD.
  METHOD receive.

    me->zgo_http_client->receive(
      EXCEPTIONS
        http_communication_failure = 1
        http_invalid_state         = 2
        http_processing_failed     = 3
        OTHERS                     = 4
    ).

    IF sy-subrc NE 0.
      me->raise_exception_for_sys_msg( ).
    ENDIF.

  ENDMETHOD.
  METHOD raise_exception_for_sys_msg.

    RAISE EXCEPTION TYPE zcx_snow_mid_api
      EXPORTING
        textid = VALUE scx_t100key(
                      msgid = syst-msgid
                      msgno = syst-msgno
                      attr1 = syst-msgv1
                      attr2 = syst-msgv2
                      attr3 = syst-msgv3
                      attr4 = syst-msgv4
                  ).

  ENDMETHOD.

What is important here is that in the constant ZGC_DESTINATION is the definition of the H type RFC destination towards the midserver.

Using the ServiceNow web services

The ServiceNow webservices including instructions on how to download the WSDL are published on the ServiceNow help web pages.

Download the WSDL file and follow the instructions from this blog to import the WSDL file inso SE80 and generate the ABAP web service proxy object. In SOAMANAGER setup the logical port towards your ServiceNow installation and make sure the connection is working.

Then implement the ABAP code as above.

In stead of calling the REST service, you now call the ABAP proxy generated:

* Data Declarations
DATA: zcl_proxy TYPE REF TO zco_zbapidemowebservice, " Proxy Class
      zdata_in  TYPE zzbapidemo, " Proxy Input
      zdata_out TYPE zzbapidemoresponse, " Proxy Output
      zfault    TYPE REF TO cx_root. " Generic Fault

* Instantiate the proxy class providing the Logical port name
CREATE OBJECT zcl_proxy EXPORTING logical_port_name = 'ZDEMOWS'.

* Set Fixed Values
zdata_in-zimport = '1'.

TRY .
    zcl_proxy->zbapidemo( EXPORTING input = zdata_in
                          IMPORTING output = zdata_out ).
    WRITE: / zdata_out-zexport.
  CATCH cx_root INTO zfault.
* here is the place for error handling

ENDTRY.

Off course you will use the generated in and out data from the generated service.

Fine tuning of alert thresholds

When you are working with SAP Focused Run alert management, you might detect that some alerts are triggered too often. This will lead to work checking the alert and finding out it is more or less false alarm.

So a new threshold is needed, but what is a good threshold?

Questions that will be answered in this blog are:

  • Which tools can I use to perform fine tuning of alert thresholds?
  • Can I perform a forecast based on the data?
  • Can I perform a sensitivity analysis?
  • Which installation activities are required to enable the forecast and sensitivity functions?

Fine tuning alert threshold

In our example we will look at the Dialog Response Time metric. The current threshold for red alert is set to 5000 ms (5 seconds). The alert is triggered too often. But the question to answer now: what is a good threshold to set based on the historical data?

First click the Open metric in new window icon to enlarge the screen:

The enlarged screen now opens:

As you can see 2 times the red threshold was hit. We want to fine tune now. First select the calendar icon and select last 7 days to get full week overview:

You can use the forecast button to let the system create a forecast:

The forecast will now show mean, mean low and mean high forecast:

In this specific use case the prediction is that the maximum is 3300 ms (3.3 seconds).

Now open the statistics button to see the statistics and the recommended threshold tool button:

By changing the Sensitivity slider, the system will calculate different proposal for the alert threshold. In our case when we move sensitivity to 4 the new recommended threshold value is recalculated:

In this case it is 7669 ms.

So we now have collected following facts:

  • Current threshold of 5 seconds is reached too often
  • Average forecast based on history has a mean value of 3.3 seconds
  • Performing the sensitivity analysis the threshold recommendation is about 7.7 seconds

Based on this data the red threshold is best to increase from 5 to 8 seconds to get a good alert function. It will not reach too soon, hence limiting false alerts, but it will still alert in time in case poor performance happens.

Enabling forecast and sensitivity analysis

The forecast and sensitivity analysis function use the Application Function Library (AFL) and SAP HANA Automated Predictive Library (APL). These must be installed separately. The installation details and post steps for granting permissions are described in the Focused Run master guide in the section “Predictive Analytics Setup – Metric Forecasting”.

After the installation you must activate and assign PFCG role SAP_FRN_APP_PAS_DISP to be able to see the buttons.

Alert management outbound integration to ServiceNow

SAP Focused Run alert management function can send out mails to alert to mail addresses (see this blog).

SAP Focused Run can also call an outbound integration to a ITIL tool like ServiceNow. This can help to speed up incident creation.

It needs implementation on ABAP level. The ABAP coding is not explained in this blog, but in a dedicated detailed blog. This blog focuses on the usage and configuration on when to call the outbound integration.

Questions that will be answered in this blog are:

  • How does the high level integration between SAP Focused Run and ServiceNow look like?
  • Where can I find information on the to-be-implemented ABAP BADI?
  • How can I send an alert directly to ServiceNow from the Alert management detailed page?
  • How can I automate in template settings to send an alert via outbound integration towards ServiceNow?

Setting up the integration

For setting up the integration to ServiceNow the AEM third party consumer connection BADI must be implemented. The full manual for the BADI itself can be found on the SAP Focused Run Expert portal.

The documents describes the BADI in generic way.

To call ServiceNow you have to use one of the following 2 integration methods:

  • Call webservice: in this case you import the WSDL from ServiceNow and generate the proxy and execute the SOAMANAGER settings to logon to ServiceNow. You need ABAP code in the BADI to call the proxy. See this blog for generic use of setting up webservice consumption in ABAP stack. Available webservices for ServiceNow can be found on the ServiceNow page.
  • Call the ServiceNow midserver: in this case you call a REST interface. In this case you need to setup a HTTP RFC connection to the midserver. ABAP code in the BADI is needed to make the REST call. See this blog for generic use of REST call in ABAP stack. REST API references from ServiceNow can be found on the ServiceNow page.

In a this blog we explain the ABAP code to put inside the BAPI. The below will explain the functionality part.

From alert trigger integration

If you are inside an alert, you can trigger the alert reaction:

Then select the reaction to forward to ServiceNow:

Within few seconds the alert in ServiceNow is created:

Alert reaction automation in template settings

The alert reaction to ServiceNow can also be automated as Outbound Integration. If you are in template maintenance mode, switch to Expert mode.

In the alerts tab now configure the alert type for Forward to and Outbound Connector:

Assign the correct variant.

If you click on the variant you go to the variant configuration screen:

Then select the outbound integration name to see the details:

Important here is the where used list, which shows you from which templates and template elements the connector is called.

Whenever the alert is raised, also the outbound integration connector to ServiceNow is called.

Alert management: mail notification

The alert management function is a central alert inbox function for SAP Focused Run. All alerts from all tools are coming together in the alert inbox. For full overview of functions, read this blog. This specific blog will zoom in to the option in alert management to send mails for the alert.

Questions that will be answered are:

  • How can I configure Focused Run to send mails for specific alert situations?
  • How can I setup multiple mail receivers?
  • How can I setup multiple mail groups?
  • How can I change the layout of the mail?

Setting up alert consumer

First we will set up the alert consumer. Goto the Alert Consumer Variant configuration tile:

In the next screen click on the Plus symbol to create a new Alert Consumer:

Initially there is no mail template and no recipient list.

We will create these in the steps below. When these are created, they can be used in the drop downs. Save the consumer and don’t forget to put the status to Active.

Maintain recipient list

From the alert consumer screen create a new recipient list:

Give it a name and add the e-mail addresses for the group. There can be one or multiple. Save the list.

Maintain e-mail template

Create a new e-mail template:

On the left hand side you can see the variables you can use. On the right hand side you construct the mail template. Preview is possible but shows limited functionality only. Save after you are happy with the mail.

Using the alert consumer

Now we have created the alert consumer with the mail template and recipient list. We can goto the monitoring template maintenance to assign the alert consumer. In the alerts tab of the template that you want to alert on, goto the Alerts tab:

For the type of alert switch the Automatic notification to Use Variant. In the Notifications tab below, you can now assign the created variant. Save the settings.

After the template change: do not forget to Apply and Activate the template for use.

Testing and mail sending

To test your settings: use a development system or sandbox to test your event. Then check in SOST that the mail is properly created:

Using the Alert Management function

The alert management function is a central alert inbox function for SAP Focused Run. All alerts from all tools are coming together in the alert inbox.

Questions that will be answered in this blog are:

  • How does the alert inbox work?
  • How can I get a good overview of all the alerts?
  • How can I mail an alert?
  • Which actions can I perform on an alert?
  • Can I set up my own alert dashboard?
  • Can I have Focused Run automatically confirm some of the alerts, when the system detects all is ok again?

Alert inbox

To open the Alert Inbox, click on the FIORI tile:

Don't let yourself be distracted by the high number. This is the total unfiltered amount of alerts. It will contain alerts from production and non-production systems. It will be important and non-important alerts.

Now the open alert overview dashboard will open:

There is a lot of information on this screen.

Top left are the open alerts by source. This means the open alerts by application, instance, database. In the middle top are the open alerts by category (like availability, exceptions, etc). Top right is the open alerts by current rating. Bottom left is the top type of open alert by type of metric that is causing the alert. Bottom right is the distribution of open alerts by age.

Processing an alert

From the overview you can choose two ways to start:

  1. On the top right section click on the Critical alerts that are currently still open.
  2. On the left, select the open alert list icon:

Both options will bring you to the list of open important alerts:

The sorting is done from Very High and then High, etc, already. The most important open current alerts are on top. This list can also be exported to Excel.

Clicking on an alert will open the details:

Here you can see the history and current status. It can be that the alert is till red, but it can also be that Focused Run detects that the current situation is now ok. It will still leave the alert open for you to analyse and confirm.

You can click on the Actions button to get the follow up action menu:

  • Confirm the alert will close the alert.
  • Add a comment: add text to the alert.
  • Add or change a processor: assign a user ID who should pick up the alert and is responsible for the alert.
  • Trigger an alert reaction (for example to SAP solution manager IT service desk or outbound integration to for example ServiceNow)
  • Send notification will give you the option to mail the alert:

Using the action log button:

you can see the action log for the alert:

Automatic confirmation of alerts

For some type of alerts, you might want to activate the automatic confirmation. This automatic confirmation is set at template level. Read this blog on the details. If it is set, the alert will still be created. The alert will remain open until the system detects the issue is gone. If gone, the system will automatically close the alert.

Alert management search

With the looking glass left you goto the Alert search overview. Here you can search in any way you want on the alerts, including free text search:

Top right you select extra specific filter criteria:

Alert reporting

In the left you can select the option Alert Reporting where the default alert report will open:

Clicking on any colored bar will bring you to the detailed list. From the list you can filter down to the details.

Custom alert page

By clicking on the + icon on the left button bar, you can add your own alert page:

The UI is the same as for the tactical dashboards. Read more in that blog on how to configure the dashboard.